Objective Slump test is used to measure the consistency of concrete mix. Indirectly it is used to check whether workability of concrete mix is up to desired level or not. Equipment Used Slump Cone Tamping Rod Spatula Brush Procedure Cone...

photo source: muzeum1939.pl Underwater Concreting Underwater concreting is same as conventional concreting except for one difference. It is done under water. There are mainly four methods for placing concrete under water which are listed...
hydration of portland cement

Introduction Hydration Of Portland cement is defined as "dissolution-precipitation" process. During this process cement in mix reacts with water and transforms from fluid phase to porous solid matter known as concrete. This process...

As Civil Engineers, We all know that microstructure of concrete is very important in terms of strength durability and serviceability. Many deleterious actions operate through microstructure of concrete therefore, it is...

Introduction: Steel structures are widely used in the construction industry as they are easily available and take less time in fabrication. We were given an office building plan and asked to design it. Material...

Introduction Concrete Strength testing is always a requirement in the field of concrete construction. Usually, when concrete batch arrives, two or three cylinders or cubes are cast so that quality control is...

Civil engineering has come a long way since its evolution. Starting from the simple structures to the skyscrapers today, the world has witnessed immense advancement in the engineering knowledge. It has...

What Is Segregation? Segregation refers to separation of different concrete phases. It happens when concrete mix is not cohesive enough. Slump Test in Conventional concrete and Flow test in Self Compacting Concrete can...

This article will focus on Basic Types of Estimates used in quantity surveying. What is an Estimate? An Estimate is what determines the probable cost of a project, which can be a building, a...
Method of joints truss

This tutorial describes force method to determine internal forces in truss members. What is a Truss? Truss is a structure having bar elements connected by pins. We assume that loads are applied only...

Raft foundation In case of soils having low bearing capacity, heavy structural loads are often supported by offering raft foundations. Additionally if the structure is susceptible to subsidence on  being situated in...

Development length and Lap length Many students get confused between Development length and lap length terminologies.  Lap length addresses the length of the bar needed to transfer the stresses to the other...
Analysis of statically determinate beams

This video by Dr. Structure explains the procedure to analyse statically determinate beams. The concept though very basic is essential to understand. What is a statically determinate beam? Beam is statically determinate if...

Stability Of Trusses A stable truss is the one in which when loads are applied, truss maintains its position and configuration and when loads are removed it comes back to original position. Unstable...

Influence Lines for statically determinate beams This video (given below) by Dr. Structure explains the influence line of moments considering the case of statically determinate beams. Influence lines are great tool to determine...

Myths and misconceptions are rampant within the concrete building industry. After some time, a few of these myths tackle a lifetime of their very own and everybody begins to take them without...

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Deep Foundations In case, the strata of good bearing capacity is not available near the ground, the foundation of the structure has to be taken...